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Asseng et al. (2015): 
Rising heat reduces global wheat production. Nature Climate Change 5 (2), 143–147.


The Model for Nitrogen and Carbon in Agro-ecosystems
Overview PDF Print E-mail

MONICA is a dynamic, process-based simulation model which describes transport and bio-chemical turn-over of carbon, nitrogen and water in agro-ecosystems. On daily time steps the most important processes in soil and plant are modelled mechanistically. They are linked in such way that feed-back relations of the single processes are reproduced as close to nature as possible. MONICA works one dimensional and represents a space of 1 m² surface area and 2 m depth.

The acronym MONICA is derived from „MOdel of Nitrogen and Carbon dynamics in Agro-ecosystems”.

Last Updated on Wednesday, 22 February 2012 15:48
The development of MONICA PDF Print E-mail

MONICA is a successor of the the HERMES model. HERMES is a pure nitrogen model. It had to be modified to also support research questions on carbon dynamics under climate change. The simple algorithm for the calculation of nitrogen mineralisation from soil organic matter was replaced by a more comprehensive one, which was taken from the Danish DAISY model. It calculates the carbon turn-over and derives nitrogen dynamics from it. This approach also considers soil microbial biomass dynamics. Furthermore, the impact of atmospheric CO2 concentration on the crop’s photosynthesis and transpiration was introduced.

Last Updated on Thursday, 23 February 2012 07:28
Technical details PDF Print E-mail

MONICA was programmed using the C++ language. This alleviates the connection to other programs that work together with MONICA, and it is very fast. Now simulations covering a long period of time can be run in seconds.

MONICA’s construction is modular. In a central control module crop management actions (sowing, fertilising, irrigation, tillage, and harvest) are sorted and assigned to the respective topical modules. It is in charge for the provision and output of results. The topical modules calculate soil temperature, soil water dynamics, soil matter transport, soil organic matter turn-over and crop growth. An additional central module saves relevant state variables in the respective soil layers.


Last Updated on Thursday, 23 February 2012 07:18