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Asseng et al. (2015): 
Rising heat reduces global wheat production. Nature Climate Change 5 (2), 143–147.


The development of MONICA PDF Print E-mail

MONICA is a successor of the the HERMES model. HERMES is a pure nitrogen model. It had to be modified to also support research questions on carbon dynamics under climate change. The simple algorithm for the calculation of nitrogen mineralisation from soil organic matter was replaced by a more comprehensive one, which was taken from the Danish DAISY model. It calculates the carbon turn-over and derives nitrogen dynamics from it. This approach also considers soil microbial biomass dynamics. Furthermore, the impact of atmospheric CO2 concentration on the crop’s photosynthesis and transpiration was introduced.

Last Updated on Thursday, 23 February 2012 07:28
MONICA’s predecessor: the HERMES model PDF Print E-mail

The HERMES model (Kersebaum 1989) was the first simulation model for the year-round simulation of N dynamics in agricultural sites developed in Germany. It uses a generic, photosynthesis-driven crop model, built on the archetype SUCROS (Van Keulen et al. 1982). This enables HERMES to consider a broad range of crops. In general, the process model comprises rather simple algorithms and requires easy-to-access input data only.

However, HERMES used some input information that was specific for Germany, such as the German soil classification system and Haude’s evapotranspiration factors. For this reason it was not much used by international colleagues. In Germany, however, HERMES was applied in many case studies, including regional applications in combination with a geo-information system. More recent releases include alternative evapotranspiration algorithms and enable a less restrictive parameterisation of the soil. This version was also applied outside Europe (Kersebaum et al. 2008). The HERMES model is considered the heart of MONICA.


Kersebaum, K.C. (1989): Die Simulation der Stickstoff-Dynamik von Ackerböden. Dissertation Universität Hannover.

Van Keulen, H., Penning de Vries, F.W.T., Drees, E.M. (1982): A summary model for crop growth. In: Penning de Vries, F.W.T. & Van Laar, H.H. (Hrsg.): Simulation of plant growth and crop production. PUDOC, Wageningen, 87 - 97.

Kersebaum, K.C., Wurbs, A., De Jong, R., Campbell, C.A., Yang, J., Zentner, R.P. (2008): Long term simulation of soil-crop interactions in semiarid southwestern Saskatchewan, Canada. European Journal of Agronomy 29, 1-12

Last Updated on Wednesday, 05 September 2012 15:12